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                                 Debian/m68k GNU/Linux
                   Installation Instructions for m68k/VMEbus SBCs (v1.0)
                            Nick Holgate, February 24, 1999
                    (derived from Amiga install guide by Frank Neumann)
          Ok, so you think you want to try Debian, dive into the wonderful world of
          free software, world-wide programming collaboration and soon-to-come world
          domination? Fine. Your first test will be to install the Debian base
          system on your VMEbus SBC, and I hope this document will help you in
          getting that step done.
          So, without any further ado, these are the absolutely vital steps you need
          to take:
       0. Before even thinking of starting to install Debian, you should make a
          BACKUP of your current system. It's not like Debian will erase all data on
          your hard disks immediately when it starts up, but you can damage a lot
          easily if you are new to Linux or Unix in general. If you have a DAT, or
          spare hard disk, this is the chance to use them for creating a backup.
      0b. Check out if your system is suited for Linux/m68k - please read the
          Linux/m68k FAQ, available e.g. at /
       1. First you must decide which media you are going to boot and install the
          Debian base system from:
          Booting choices are:
            * SCSI CD-ROM (BVME4000/6000 only).
            * TEAC FC-1 SCSI floppy drive.
            * BOOTP/TFTP
          Installation media choices are:
            * SCSI CD-ROM.
            * TEAC FC-1 SCSI floppy.
            * NFS mounted filesystem.
       2. Obtain the official Debian/m68k 2.1 CD set, or
          get all required files from one of Debian's FTP sites, like
          ftp.debian.org, ftp.de.debian.org etc. A list of mirror sites can be found
          at http://www.debian.org/distrib/ftplist.
          No matter what mirror site you use, the path should always be:
          Debian currently supports 3 VME sub-architectures these are the
          BVME4000/6000, the MVME162 and the MVME166/167. Sub-architecture specific
          files will be located in the bvme6000, mvme162 and mvme167 sub-directories
          of disks-m68k/current respectively.
          Below is listed the names of the files you will need for each boot and
          installation media type:
          Boot from CD-ROM (BVME4000/6000 only):
            The first CD of the official Debian/m68k 2.1 CD set.
          Boot from floppy disk:
          Boot from BOOTP/TFTP:
            <subarch>/tftplilo.bvme or <subarch>/tftplilo.mvme
          Installation from floppy disk:
          Installation from NFS mounted file system:
          If you chose to boot or install from the floppy disk, you'll also need a
          program to dump the floppy images (resc1440.bin, drv1440.bin and
          base14-?.bin) to a 1440k (HD) floppy. This can be done on an MSDOS PC
          using a program named 'rawrite.exe' or 'rawrite2.exe', or on a Unix box
          using the 'dd' command.
          Once you have installed the base system and want to continue installing
          other packages, you can find these under the directories
          /pub/debian/dists/slink/main/binary-m68k (core section),
          /pub/debian/dists/slink/contrib/binary-m68k (contributed packages)
          /pub/debian/dists/slink/non-free/binary-m68k (software which does not meet
          the Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG)).
          Alternatively, get the official Debian/m68k 2.1 CD set. The install files
          may be found on disc 1 in /install/.
       3. Now you have decided on your installation method and obtained all the
          necessary files it is time to begin installation.
       4. Configure your VME hardware to enable it to boot from the selected
          media. The BVM processor boards use the BVMBug boot ROMs, see the file
          bvmbug.txt in disks-m68k/current/bvme6000 or the CD disc 1
          /install/bvme6000 directory for more information. Also refer to the
          tftplilo.txt file for more information on using 'tftplilo' to boot using
          CD-ROM/Floppy disk boot:
          At the boot ROM/debugger prompt enter the appropriate incantation to boot
          from the CD-ROM or Rescue floppy disk you created. After the boot ROM's
          have read the Linux loader from disk you will be presented with a message
          giving instructions for the next step and be presented with the 'LILO
          Boot:' prompt.
          At the 'LILO Boot:' prompt enter either of the following to boot Linux and
          begin installation proper of the Debian software:
                  install <Return>                 (for VT102 terminal emulation)
              or  install TERM=vt100 <Return>      (for VT100 terminal emulation)
          BOOTP/TFTP net boot:
          Copy an rename as appropriate the following files into the directory where
          your TFTP server expects to find them. On debian systems this is the /boot
             For BVME4000/6000: bvme6000/linux         --> /boot/linuxbvme6000
                                bvme6000/root.bin      --> /boot/rootbvme.bin
                                bvme6000/tftplilo.bvme --> /boot/tftplilo.bvme
                                bvme6000/tftplilo.conf --> /boot/tftplilo.conf
             For MVME162:       mvme162/linux          --> /boot/linuxmvme162
                                mvme162/root.bin       --> /boot/rootmvme.bin
                                mvme162/tftplilo.mvme  --> /boot/tftplilo.mvme
                                mvme162/tftplilo.conf  --> /boot/tftplilo.conf
             For MVME166/167:   mvme167/linux          --> /boot/linuxmvme167
                                mvme167/root.bin       --> /boot/rootmvme.bin
                                mvme167/tftplilo.mvme  --> /boot/tftplilo.mvme
                                mvme167/tftplilo.conf  --> /boot/tftplilo.conf
          At the boot ROM/debugger prompt enter the alternative incantation to boot
          using TFTP (also refer to the tftplilo.txt file for additional system
          configuration information). After the boot ROM's have loaded tftplilo and
          tftplilo has read its configuration file you will be presented with the
          'LILO Boot:' prompt.
          At the 'LILO Boot:' prompt enter one of the following to boot Linux and
          begin installation proper of the Debian software using vt102 terminal
             i6000 <Return>      to install a BVME4000/6000
             i162 <Return>       to install an MVME162
             i167 <Return>       to install an MVME166/167
          Alternatively append the string 'TERM=vt100' to use vt100 terminal
          e.g. i6000 TERM=vt100 <Return>
       5. The boot loader will now load the Linux kernel and Ramdisk file system.
          After that all kinds of kernel debugging information will appear. These
          messages scroll by far too fast for you to read, but that's not important
          right now. After a couple of seconds, the installation program should
          start automatically.
       6. So, now we're getting somewhere. The Debian installation program will
          lead you through the steps of preparing the partitions from the Linux
          side, unpacking and configuring the kernel modules and base system, and
          finally rebooting. Some of the presented steps are not really necessary
          (or even possible) on m68k platforms (the installation program is just the
          same as on the i386 version of Debian, and some of the i386 features are
          not (yet) available in the m68k version), so I'll tell you what you have
          to do at each step now.
       7. Select Color or Monochrome display
          If you chose VT100 terminal emulation at the 'LILO Boot:' prompt you will
          not be asked to Select Color or Monochrome display and installation will
          proceed in monochrome using standard ASCII characters instead of line
          drawing symbols.
          Otherwise if your terminal or terminal emulator supports colour you might
          want to select the Color option. Use the cursor keys to choose what you
          want, then press Return.
       8. Release notes
          This is just a screen with a little information about Debian's goals, who
          built the rescue set etc.
          Now we come to the main installation screen which lists all possible
          actions you can take, with the next logical step always being highlighted
          at the top of the list. I recommend to strictly follow the suggested way.
       9. Configure the keyboard
          This step is bypassed for VME systems as the serial console is not
      10. Partitioning a hard disk
          If you are installing to an NFS root file system and you are not going to
          use virtual swap memory this step can be bypassed.
          Partitioning maps areas of your hard disk in order to provide space for
          the Linux root file system and space for virtual memory swap storage. A
          rough guide for determining the size of the swap partition is to use a
          size about twice as large as your main memory. But rather more than that
          on systems with little main memory, don't go below 20 MB swap space.
          Note: Linux assigns device names in order of SCSI ID as follows:
                /dev/sda    first hard or floppy drive    lowest ID
                /dev/sdb    second hard or floppy drive     |
                /dev/sdc    third hard or floppy drive      V
                 etc.                                     highest ID
                /dev/scd0   first CD-ROM drive            lowest ID
                /dev/scd1   second CD-ROM drive             |
                /dev/scd2   third CD-ROM drive              V
                 etc.                                     highest ID
                /dev/st0    first tape drive              lowest ID
                /dev/st1    second tape drive                |
                /dev/st2    third tape drive                 V
                 etc.                                     highest ID
          The partitions on each hard disk are represented by appending a decimal
          number to the hard disk name: sda1, sda2, sda3 represent the first, second
          and third partition of the first SCSI hard disk in your system.
          The Debian installation software creates a symbolic link "/dev/sfd0" to
          the first (lowest ID) SCSI floppy device and this is the SCSI floppy drive
          used by the remainder of the installation.
          When adding SCSI devices to an already installed system make sure the SCSI
          ID of the new device is higher than those of the same type already in the
          system, reconfigure existing devices with a lower IDs if necessary. This
          is because device names are allocated in order of ID and not a fixed named
          to a fixed ID. Adding a device with a lower id will cause all those with
          higher IDs to change device name, which may in the case of a hard disk may
          prevent your system from booting.
          The disk partitioner is rather unfriendly so here is a brief description
          of what to do. This example creates two partitions on the hard disk, the
          first one for the Linux root file system and the second for the swap data
          (virtual memory).
          On entering the fdisk utility you may get a 'Warning: invalid flag'
          message, you can safely ignore this it just indicates that the disk has
          not been partitioned before.
          The first thing to do is to delete any old partitions on the disk. Enter
          'p <Return>' at the prompt to list the existing partitions. Then enter 'd
          <Return>' to delete a partition, when asked enter the partition number 1-4
          and press return. Repeat this for each partition.
          Now you must create the new partitions. Use the 'p' command to display the
          disk geometry. The values you are going to enter are in units of
          cylinders, see the line showing 'Units = cylinders of ??? * 512 bytes'
          calculate the number of bytes per cylinder then divide that into the
          required size of the swap partition to give the number of cylinders for
          the swap partition. Now subtract the number of cylinders for the swap
          partition away from the total number of cylinders on the disk. this will
          give you the last cylinder for the main file system partition.
          Enter 'n <Return>' to create a new partition, followed by 'p <Return>' for
          primary then '1 <Return>' for the partition number. Enter first cylinder
          number as 1, enter the last cylinder number calculated above.
          Now repeat for the swap partition. Enter 'n <Return>', 'p <Return>', '2
          <Return>'. Enter the first cylinder as the lowest number offered, and the
          last cylinder as the highest number offered. To indicate that this is the
          swap partition you must set the partition type. Enter 't <Return>', '2
          <Return>', '82 <Return>'.
          All that remains is to write the new partition table to disk. Enter 'w
          <Return>'. The partition table will be written and you will leave the
          fdisk utility. (Note: ignore the warning about rebooting to update the
          partition table, it is not necessary).
      11. Initialize and Activate a Swap Partition.
          When pressing Return, you will see a list of partitions that the
          installation program has found as being prepared by you for usage as a
          swap partition. If you have partitioned the hard disk as described above
          you will probably see only one choice, /dev/sda2. If you have chosen to
          use several swap partitions, repeat the following steps for all of them:
          Press Return to accept the selected partition When asked whether you want
          to do a bad-block scan, you can safely skip this step, so select "No" here
          using Tab and then Return. When asked whether you really want to
          initialize this partition as a swap partition, think twice, then, when
          being sure, press Return. At this point the swap partition will be
          "formatted" -- that is, some information is written to it to mark it as
          swap partition -- which only takes a second (you'll hardly be able to read
          the text that appears at the top of the screen - ignore that for now).
      12. Configure network (for NFS root filesystem)
          If you are installing _to_ an NFS root file system, now is the time to
          configure the network. This will not be the presented next step so scroll
          down the menu and select it yourself.
          Once the network is configure instead of selecting 'Initialize a Linux
          Partition' choose 'Mount a Previously-Initialized Partition' and from the
          presented list select 'NFS'.
          Now enter the NFS mount point as <server ip>:/nfshome/<client ip>.
          <server ip> may be replaced with the remote servers DNS name if you
          configured the network to us a name server. The remote directory
          /nfshome/<client ip> should already be exported by the NFS server. The
          naming convention chosen is determined by the tftplilo.conf text file
          and may be changed if desired. The default scheme allows many systems to
          be installed to a single server each client having its own complete file
          system. This is far from optimal as certain directories could be shared
          between systems refer to the NFS-Root.gz mini HOWTO for more information.
      13. Initialize a Linux partition.
          If you are installing _to_ an NFS root file system, this step is not
          Initialising the Linux partition is very similar to initialising the swap
          partition Just as before, you'll be presented with a list of partitions
          that the installer found to be valid as Linux filesystem partitions. This
          time if you have partitioned the hard disk as described above you will
          probably see only one choice, /dev/sda1. For each of the partitions you
          have chosen to use, accept it by selecting it from the list and pressing
          Return, skip the "Bad-block scan" and (when you are sure) select "Yes" to
          format (initialize) the partition. After that, you will be asked whether
          you want to mount the currently active partition as root ("/") partition.
          Say "Yes" here at the first partition you use. Other partitions can be
          mounted somewhere under this mount point afterwards.
      14. Install Operating System Kernel and Modules.
          If you are installing from floppy disks choose the SCSI floppy option, you
          will then be prompted to insert both the Rescue floppy and the Drivers
          floppy at appropriate times and the kernel and modules will be unpacked to
          the hard disk or NFS root file system.
          If you are installing from CD-ROM select CD-ROM and choose the SCSI CD-ROM
          from the presented list. You will then be asked the path to the directory
          containing the installation files - change "/debian" to
          "/install/bvme6000", "/install/mvme162" or "/install/mvme167" as
          appropriate then press <Return>. Next you are asked whether
          you want to select the files from a list or enter the path name manually;
          just press <Return> here twice as the installation program will find the
          correct and only installation files itself.
          The hard disk LED will blink for a while as the kernel and modules are
          unpacked onto the root partition, and after that you get back to the main
          If you are installing from an NFS mounted file system you should first
          make you have configured the network then you will be able to choose NFS
          from the presented list. Enter the NFS server address and mount path. Then
          enter the directory where the appropriate resc1440.bin and drv1440.bin
          disk images are stored.
      15. Configure Device Driver Modules
          This step is only necessary if certain device drivers need to be loaded
          very early when Linux starts up later; like, an Ethernet driver has to be
          pre-loaded so that the networking can already be initialized at boot-time.
          For a stand-alone system you probably don't have to configure anything
          here, but you should still select this item so that the installer can
          build a list of available kernel modules. When you see the next screen,
          you can immediately go to "Exit: Finished with modules. Return to previous
          menu". If you do need to configure a device driver for your system, please
          follow the on-screen explanations for selecting modules to be pre-loaded.
          When done, select the "Exit" item.
          Once your Linux system is installed, you can get back to the configuration
          of modules at any time by starting the "modconf" program.
      16. Install the Base System.
          Just as with the "Install Operating System Kernel and Modules" step, you
          need to specify where the base system archive is located. The file should
          be named "base2_1.tgz". This may either be the floppy disks, the CD-ROM or
          an NFS file system.
          If the SCSI floppy is selected you will be prompted to insert each of the
          6 floppy disks in turn. Each of the floppy disks should have been written
          with the base14-?.bin files, which are actually the "base2_1.tgz" file
          split into 6 pieces.
          If you are installing from CD, select "cdrom: CD-ROM drive" and enter
          "/install" as path. Again, as everything should be in the place the
          installer expects to find it, press <Return> twice after this to accept
          the default options.
          After selecting the SCSI CD-ROM drive as everything should be in the place
          the installer expects to find it, press Return twice to accept the default
          options. At this point you've got a few minutes time (depending on the
          speed of your processor/hard disk) while the base archive is unpacked onto
          the Linux root partition.
      17. Configure the Base System.
          In this step you just set the time zone that you're in - this should be
          pretty intuitive. For instance, for Germany the selection "CET - Europe"
          (first screen) and "Berlin" (second screen) should be fine. When asked
          whether your system clock is set to "GMT" (Greenwich Mean Time),
      18. Configure the Network
          If you are installing to or from an NFS server you may have already
          performed this step. If so you don't need to do it again.
          We're almost done! This last step to do is to set up your networking if
          you are so lucky to be connected to a net. If you have no network, all you
          need to enter is your hostname (under Linux, every computer has a name!).
          Pick something you like - your girlfriend's name *sigh*, a famous
          artist/writer/composer/character/actor/whatever. Just one word, please.
          If you are connected to a network, you need to enter:
            * Your network's name
            * The IP address of your computer
            * The netmask
            * Your broadcast address
            * Your gateway's IP address, if one is available
            * Your nameserver's IP address, if there is one available.
            * Your type of connection - Ethernet, PPP, Slip or whatever else.
          The help screen on this step suggests that you don't answer "Yes" to the 
          question whether your computer is connected to a network if this connection 
          is PPP, i.e. a temporary one (makes sense, as PPP is often assigned dynamic
          network addresses). I strongly recommend to follow this suggestion and
          complete the network configuration after booting the disk based system. 
          The 'pppconfig' utility is included in the base system to this purpose.
          In case you complete the network configuration here, this step doesn't 
          completely set up PPP or SLIP for you, just stores some configuration data 
          for you. For these configurations, you'll see error messages about 'network 
          device not available' now (and on the later boot from disk), ignore them, 
          and configure PPP or SLIP later.
      19. Make Linux bootable directly from hard disk.
          If you have installed to a hard disk, press enter and the 'vmelilo'
          program will be run to make your hard disk bootable.
          18) Make a Boot Floppy
          Skip this step as this is not currently supported.
      20. Now its time to reboot. Select the alternative action "Reboot the
          System" and after a few seconds, the machine will reboot.
      21. If you have just installed to a hard disk use the appropriate boot ROM
          command to boot from that disk.
          If you have just installed to an NFS root file system, again enter the
          command to boot the tftplilo program. This time from the 'LILO Boot:'
          prompt enter one of:
             b6000 <Return>      to boot a BVME4000/6000
             b162 <Return>       to boot an MVME162
             b167 <Return>       to boot an MVME166/167
      22. The boot sequence will take quite a bit longer than when you installed
          the system because a database of filenames has to be built ("Locate"
          database). After that, you are automatically logged in, and need to take
          these steps: 
            * Set a password for the root user (the administrator account)
            * Create another (unprivileged) user account
            * Activate (or not) the "Shadow passwords" (recommendation: Yes, use it!)
            * Determine whether you want to continue installing the system via a PPP 
              line or not, and configuration of the PPP connection scripts.
            * Set an "installation profile" of packages you want to install.
          After these steps, you are automatically thrown into the "dselect" program
          which is the interface-driven package installation manager. My personal
          preference is to quit that program as soon as possible and rather install
          packages manually via the "apt-get" or "dpkg" program, but your mileage
          may vary. You should at least set the access method and update the
          packages list here. Selection of packages has already been performed if
          you didn't skip the "installation profile" above, so there should be no
          need to select packages by hand using dselect.
          When you quit this program, you get logged out and can log in as root or
          as an unprivileged user if you created one before.
          At this point you have a running basic Debian installation on your VME
          If you have just installed to an NFS root file system you may like to make
          a slight addition to the tftplilo.conf file on the TFTP server to disable
          the installation options for the installed machine and enable your system
          to boot without having to enter anything at the 'LILO Boot:' prompt. Add
          one of the following to the _beginning_ of the tftplilo.conf file:
           For BVME4000/6000:
             ip     = <ip address of installed system>
             prompt = No
             boot   = b6000
           For MVME162:
             ip     = <ip address of installed system>
             prompt = No
             boot   = b162
           For MVME166/167:
             ip     = <ip address of installed system>
             prompt = No
             boot   = b167
      23. One more tip: To cleanly shut down a running Linux system, you must
          not just press the reset button or turn off the power - instead, you
          should use the shutdown program while logged in as 'root' as follows:
               shutdown -h now        (shutdown and halt the system immediately)
           or  shutdown -r now        (shutdown and reboot the system immediately)
            More information:
             * The Debian GNU/Linux homepage (http://www.debian.org/)
             * The Linux/m68k domain's homepage (/)
             * Richard Hirst's VME Linux homepage
             * Visit us on IRC, channel #linux68k, server irc.lame.org (or
               connected servers).
             ..and maybe hundreds of other Linux- or Debian-related Web sites
               around the world.
              Good luck in the wonderful world of Debian/m68k!

      Created by Webify 0.4 on Sun 02 May 1999 at 01:02 AM CDT

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