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          Debian/m68k GNU/Linux - Short Amiga installation instructions (v0.1)
         ---------------------------------------------------------------------
      
      	  Short Debian/m68k installation instructions for Amiga;
      	  to be replaced soon by a _slightly_ longer version :-)
      
      		      Frank Neumann, July 20th, 1998
      
         Updated for Debian 2.1 Jan 29 1999 Michael Schmitz, Christian Steigies
      
      A hopefully always up-to-date version of this document should be online at:
           http://www.informatik.uni-oldenburg.de/~amigo/debian_inst.html
           
      
      Ok, so you think you want to try Debian, dive into the wonderful world 
      of free software and world-wide programming collaboration? Fine. Your
      first test will be to install the Debian base system on your Amiga, and I
      hope this document will help you in getting that step done.
      
      So, without any further ado, these are the absolutely vital steps you need 
      to take:
      
      0) Before even thinking of starting to install Debian on your Amiga, you
         should make a BACKUP of your current system. It's not like Debian will
         erase all data on your harddisks immediately when it starts up, but you
         can damage a lot easily if you are new to Linux or Unix in general.
         If you have a DAT, MO or spare harddisk, this is the chance to use them
         for creating a backup.
      
      0b) Check out if your system is suited for Linux/m68k - please read the
          Linux/m68k FAQ, available e.g. at /.
      
      1) Get all required files from one of Debian's FTP sites,
         like ftp.debian.org, ftp.de.debian.org etc. A list of mirror sites
         can be found at http://www.debian.org/distrib/ftplist
         
         No matter what mirror site you use, the path should always be:
         /pub/debian/dists/slink/main/disks-m68k/current
      
         These are the files you need:
         - amiga/amigainstall.lha
         - common/base2_1.tgz
      
         Alternatively, get the official Debian/68k 2.1 CD set. The LZH archive 
         and base2_1.tgz are in /install/.
      
      2) Unpack the amigainstall.lha file to your harddisk (a subdirectory
         named "debian" will be automatically created for you). I recommend
         to unpack the archive directly onto the main directory of a partition
         that has at least ~ 10 MB of free space.
         When installing from CD, you can use the files in /install/amiga/
         directly. 
         Move the base2_1.tgz file into this same directory ("debian").
         _Don't_ rename any files in that directory.
      
      3) Partition your harddisk (or rather prepare partitions for Linux) :
         There is a partitioning tool for Linux/m68k called amiga-fdisk, but for
         now you'll have to do the partitioning yourself under AmigaOS using
         the good old HDToolBox program.
      
         You should have reserved at least two partitions for Linux: One for the
         "root filesystem" and one for a "swap partition". The size recommendations
         are:
         - for the root partition:
             * absolute minimum should be 20 MB (this is just enough to install
      	 the base system, and nothing else - probably enough for testing
      	 it, but not for really using it)
             * a reasonable system starts at around 200 - 400 MB, no limits upwards.
         - for the swap partition: about twice as large as your main memory, but
           rather more than that. Especially on systems with little main memory
           (like 8 MB RAM), don't go below 20 MB swap space. 
           
         Naming conventions: This is important because under Linux your
         partitions have different names than under AmigaOS. This is the
         naming scheme:
         - The first SCSI harddisk (address-wise) is named "sda".
         - The second SCSI harddisk (address-wise) is named "sdb", and so on.
         - The first IDE harddisk is named "hda", the second IDE harddisk
           is named "hdb", and so on.
      
         The partitions on each harddisk are represented by appending a single
         digit to the harddisk name: sda1, sda2, sda3 represent for first, second
         and third partition of the first SCSI harddisk in your system.
      
         Here is a real-life example: Let's assume you have a system with 2 SCSI
         harddisks, one at SCSI address 2 and the other at SCSI address 4.
         The first disk is then named "sda", and the second "sdb". 
         If the "sda" harddisk has 5 partitions on it, these will be named
         "sda1", "sda2", ..., "sda5". Analoguous for the "sdb" harddisk and its
         partitions.
         
         So, now that we know the partition names, you can actually change their
         type from within HDToolBox so that the Linux installation program can
         detect them easily:
      
         Start HDToolBox, select the disk you want to use, click on the "Partition
         Drive" button and select/create the partition you want to use as the
         Debian root filesystem.
         Now you need to enable the "Advanced options" and change the following
         items under "Change":
      
         Set the filesystem to "Custom Filesystem" or "Reserved Filesystem" (it
         depends on your HDToolBox version what you get shown here), set the
         identifier to "0x4c4e5800" (this is the hexadecimal equivalent of "LNX\0"),
         disable the "Auto-mount this partition" checkbox, disable "Custom Bootcode",
         set the "Reserved blocks at" settings to: "2" for start and "0" for end.
      
         After having done this, select a partition that is to be used as a swap
         partition, and repeat the same steps as above, but set the identifier
         to "0x53575000" instead (this represents "SWP\0" in ASCII).
      
         Please note:
         - Your root and swap partitions do not need to be on the same harddisk.
         - You can have more than one partition for files besides the root
           filesystem - this even makes sense very often, like when seperating the
           user's home directories from the system file area. If you want to use
           more partitions, prepare them just like the root partition.
           If you're just going to try Linux for a short time, it's enough to
           just have a single file partition.
         - You can also have more than one swap partition, though that's not seen
           very often.
         - Write down the partition names (you know, the "sda1" etc. stuff) of
           all partitions that you are going to use for Linux.
         - At this point, please also write down the partition name (Linux-wise)
           of the partition on which you have unpacked the "amigainstall.lha"
           archive. You will need this later for installation of the base system.
       
         When you have made all required changes, go back to the main window of
         HDToolBox and "Save Changes to drive". Think twice before actually
         clicking on "Yes" - have you chosen the correctly partitions? No
         viable data that could get lost now? Then click OK.
         If required, the Amiga will reboot after this.
      
      5) When you're back at your Workbench, start the Linux installation process
         by double-clicking on the "StartInstall" icon in the "debian" directory.
      
         You will have to press the <Return> key twice after the bootstrap program
         has output some debugging information into a window.
         After this, the screen will go grey, a few seconds of delay, and after
         that a black screen with white text should come up, displaying all kinds
         of kernel debugging information. These scroll by far too fast for you to
         read, but that's not important right now.
         After a couple of seconds, the installation program should start
         automatically.
         If you get up to this point, you can be quite confident that you will be
         able to install Linux on your system. 
      
         NOTE if you want to use a grafics board with linux, you have to tell the
         kernel about the board. If you dont tell the kernel, it will use standard
         amiga grafics for output (OCS, ECS, AGA) which you might not notice if you
         have your only monitor connected to your grafics board.
      
         To make your life easier, we have prepared a few scripts for boards which
         are supported. Just doubleclick the relevant StartInstall to start the
         install process, ie.
      
         - StartInstall_clgen if you have a EGS Spectrum, Piccolo or Picasso board
         - StartInstall_CV64  if you have a CyberVision64 board,
         - StartInstall_CV3D  if you have a CyberVision/3D board,
      
         The scripts are using a resolution of 640x480 in 8 bit. Probably you want
         to use higher resolutions after the system has been set up, but for now
         please leave it at this resolution. For the CyberVision boards you _have_
         to select a 640x480 screenmode in 8 bit, otherwise you will have a more or
         less distorted screen.
      
         For further info, esp if you want to use higher resolutions in your
         linuxgo file, please read the relevant docs for your board (clgen.txt,
         cv64.txt, cv3d.txt) which were taken from the kernel source or from the
         linux-m68k mailing list.
      
      
      6) So, now we're getting somewhere. The Debian installation program will
         lead you through the steps of preparing the partitions from the Linux
         side, unpacking and configuring the kernel modules and base system,
         and finally rebooting. Some of the presented steps are not really necessary
         on m68k platforms, and I'll tell you what you have to do at each step now.
         
         - Select Color or Monochrome display
           If you use an A2024 monitor, you might want to choose a monochrome
           display - otherwise select Color.
      
         - Release notes
           This is just a screen with a few informations about Debian's goals,
           who built the rescue set etc.
      
         Now we come to the main installation screen which lists all possible
         actions you can take, with the next logical step always being highlit
         at the top of the list. I recommend to strictly follow the suggested
         way.
      
         - Configure the keyboard
           Depending on whether you have a U.S. or german keyboard, select the
           one appropriate for you with the cursor keys and <Space>, then move
           with <Tab> to the OK button and press <Return>.
      
         - Initialize and Activate a Swap Partition
           When pressing <Return>, you will see a list of partitions that the
           installation program has found as being prepared by you for usage
           as a swap partition. Probably there is only one choice, and it should
           have the same name you wrote down under AmigaOS while you were in
           HDToolbox.
           If you have chosen to use several swap partitions, repeat the following
           step for all of them:
           * Press <Return> to accept the selected partition
           * When asked whether you want to do a bad-block scan, you can safely
             skip this step, so select "No" here using <Tab>.
           * When asked whether you really want to initialize this partition as
             a swap partition, think twice, then, when being sure, press <Return>.
           At this point the swap partition will be "formatted" which only takes
           a second (you'll hardly be able to read the text that appears at the top
           of the screen - ignore that for now).
      
         -  Initialize a Linux partition
            This is very similar to the previous step, but this time it's not about
            swap partitions, but about "real" partition which are supposed to carry
            files. Just as before, you'll be presented with a list of partitions
            that the installer found to be valid as Linux filesystem partitions.
            Again, for each of the partitions you have chosen, accept them,
            skip the "Bad-block scan" and (when you are sure) select "Yes" to
            format (initialize) the partition.
            After that, you will be asked whether you want to mount the currently
            active partition as root ("/") partition. Say Yes here at the first
            partition you use. Other partitions can be mounted somewhere under
            this mount point afterwards.
      
          - Install Operating System Kernel and Modules
            As I assume that you are installing from files on a harddisk, you
            will have to select "Harddisk: Filesystem on the harddisk" here.
            Next you need to specify the (Amiga FastFilesystem) partition
            on which you unpacked the "amigainstall.lha" archive.
            After that you also need to enter the path to the directory containing
            the installation files - in the simplest case (that is, if you unpacked
            the .lha archive directly into the main directory of a partition),
            you just hit <Return> because "/debian" is already set as default for
            the directory name; otherwise you will have to type the path yourself.
            It has to begin with a "/", followed by the directory components
            leading to the files (e.g. "/tmp/newstuff/debian").
            If installing from CD, change "/debian" to "/install/amiga". 
            Next you are asked whether you want to select the files from a list
            or enter the path name manually; just press <Return> here twice as
            the installation program will find the correct and only available
            installation files itself.
      
            The harddisk LED will blink for a while as the kernel and modules are
            unpacked onto the root partition, and after that you get back to the
            main screen.
      
          - Configure Device Driver Modules
            This step is only necessary if certain device drivers need to be loaded
            very early when Linux starts up later; like, an Ethernet driver has
            to be pre-loaded so that the networking can already be initialized
            at boot-time. For a stand-alone system you don't have to configure
            anything here, but you should still select this item so that the
            installer can build a list of available kernel modules.
            When you see the next screen, you can immediately
            "Exit: Finished with modules. Return to previous menu".
      
            If you DO need to configure a device driver for your system, please 
            follow the on-screen explanations for selecting modules to be
            pre-loaded (this section is a bit short right now, sorry).
            When done, select the "Exit" item.
      
            Once your Linux system is installed, you can get back to the
            configuration of modules at any time by starting the "modconf"
            program.
      
          - Install the Base System
            Just as with the "Install Operating System Kernel and Modules" step,
            you need to specify where the base system archive is located. This
            file should be named "base2_1.tgz". If you have put it into the same
            directory as the other installation files, you already know what to
            do now: Select "harddisk: Filesystem on the harddisk", pick the
            correct partition and (if necessary) enter the path name to the
            directory containing those files. If you are installing from CD, 
            select "cdrom: CD-ROM drive" and enter "/install" as path. Again, as 
            everything should be in the place the installer expects them, press 
            <Return> twice after this to accept the default options.
      
            At this moment you've got a few minutes time (depending on the speed
            of your processor/harddisk) while the base archive is unpacked onto
            the Linux root partition.
      
          - Configure the Base System
            In this step you just set the timezone that you're in - this should
            be pretty intuitive. For instance, for Germany the selection
            "CET - Europe" (first screen) and "Berlin" (second screen) should be
            fine.
            When asked whether your system clock is set to "GMT" (Greenwich
            Mean Time), you will likely answer with "No" as most Amigas I have seen
            so far always use the local time instead of GMT.
            In case you have Geek Gadgets/Amiga Developers Environment (ADE)
            installed on your Amiga you have a better option. You can set your
            system clock to GMT (for Linux) and still have the correct time when
            running AmigaOS, even Daylight Saving time is set correctly under AOS.
            This is what I have added to my s:user-startup.
      
            setenv TZ Europe/Berlin
            ixtimezone -patch-resource
      
          - Configure the Network
            We're almost done! This last step to do is to set up your networking
            if you are so lucky to be connected to a net.
            If you have no network, all you need to enter is your hostname (under
            Linux, every computer has a name!). Pick something you like - your
            girlfriend's name, a famous artist/writer/composer/character/actor/
            whatever. Just one word, please.
      
            If you are connected to a network, you need to enter:
            * Your network's name
            * The IP address of your computer
            * The netmask
            * Your broadcast address
            * Your gateway's IP address, if one is available
            * Your nameserver's IP address, if there is one available.
            * Your type of connection - Ethernet, PPP, Slip or whatever else.
      
      Well, that's it! Ignore the next suggested step ("Make Linux bootable directly
      from harddisk") and instead select alternative 2: "Reboot the System".
      After a few seconds, the Amiga should reboot automatically into AmigaOS.
      
      So, one last step is required from you before you can boot your freshly
      installed Linux: Go to the directory containing the installation files
      and start up a texteditor into which you need to enter just one line:
      
       amiboot-x.x -k linuxamiga root=/dev/yyyy ro
      
      In this line, replace the "x.x" with the version number of the amiboot
      program that is in that directory - it was "5.6" at release time.
      Also, replace the "yyyy" with the Linux-wise partition name of the root
      partition onto which you installed the system - like sda1, hdb3, whatever
      it was, you figure.
      
      Save that file, name it something like "linuxgo", and "protect linuxgo +s"
      to make it executable like a program.
      
      Now you can just type "linuxgo" (when being in that directory) to actually
      start the system, this time booting from harddisk instead of a RAM filesystem.
      The more advanced user might want to create an icon that is linked to that
      script, or a short-cut key combination for ToolManager, or whatever you like..
      
      The boot sequence will take quite a bit longer than when you installed the
      system because a database of filenames has to be built ("Locate" database).
      After that, you are automatically logged in, and need to take these
      steps:
       - Set a root password
       - Create another (unprivileged) user account
       - Activate (or not) the "Shadow passwords" (recommendation: Yes, use it!)
       - Determine whether you want to continue installing the system via a PPP
         line or not (untested).
       - Set an "installation profile" of packages you want to install.
      
      After these steps, you are automatically thrown into the "dselect" program
      which is the interface-driven package installation manager. My personal
      preference is to quit that program as soon as possible and rather install
      packages manually via the "dpkg" program, but your mileage may vary.
      When you quit this program, you get logged out and can log in as root
      or as an unprivileged user if you created one before.
      
      At this point you have a running basic Debian installation on your Amiga,
      and if this all worked out (more or less) well for you, I'd definitely love
      to hear about it! :-)
      
      One more hint: To cleanly shut down a running Linux system, you must not
      just reboot with Ctrl-Amiga-Amiga or turn off the computer - instead, 
      press the key combination "Ctrl-Alt-Del" (yeah, just like on a PC :-)
      to shut down the system in a controlled manner.
      That's "Ctrl" + "LeftAlt" + "Delete_on_keypad (.)".
      
      More information:
      
      http://www.debian.org
      http://www.linux.org
      
      ..and maybe hundreds of other Linux- or Debian-related Web sites around
      the world.
      
      
      Good luck in the wonderful world of Debian/m68k,
      Frank
      

      Created by Webify 0.4 on Sun 02 May 1999 at 12:52 AM CDT

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